New born are born without teeth, but develop a temporary set of 20 deciduous teeth between the ages of 6 months and 3 years. The set of these 20 teeth include
- 8 incisors
- 4 canines
- 8 molars
Baby teeth fill in a baby’s mini jaws and enable them to chew and grind food while the stronger, bigger adult teeth grows inside the maxilla and mandible bones. At around 6 years of age the child’s deciduous teeth gradually fall off one at a time and are then replaced by permanent adult teeth.
Adult teeth grow while covered within the mandible and maxilla bones and after the deciduous teeth have erupted. When an adult tooth appears, it stimulates the roots of the baby tooth above it to atrophy. This results in the baby tooth to become loose and ultimately shed out. The new permanent adult tooth steadily pushes up across the gums to replace the deciduous tooth. Finally, a total of 32 permanent adult teeth are structured and sprouts out. The permanent adult teeth are positioned in both the lower and upper jaws from the midline of the mouth as follows:
- Mid incisor
- lateral incisor
- First premolar
- Second premolar
- First molar
- Second molar
- Third molar.
The first twenty-eight permanent adult teeth are completed sprouted out between the ages of 11-13 years with the third molars, called wisdom teeth, sprouting to be in the back last of the jaw many years after in early or mid adulthood ( between 20-25 years). In some situations, the wisdom teeth get impacted when they develop and become wedged at an unusual location in the jaws and eventually fail to show up. While, sometimes there is not adequate space in the jaw to accommodate a 3rd set of molars. In both the situations the wisdom tooth are surgically removed. This 3rd set of molars or wisdom tooth is not necessarily required to chew or grind the food.
Chewing or Mastication is the main task of the teeth. The teeth are arranged in the jaws in a manner that the peaks of one tooth line up with the valleys of its correlative on the other jaw. Every bite you take pressurize food into the interface of the teeth to be cut, while the sideways motion of the jaw is utilized to masticate food in the premolars and molars.
Every individual’s teeth look different from one another, reason being that they are created to do different things.
Teeth are classified into 4 major groups’ i.e.
- Incisors- These are the chisel-shaped teeth which are supposed to be the sharpest teeth and are positioned in the very front of the mouth. Incisors have a flat apical surface that is specifically shaped to cut food into smaller bits and to shovel the food inward.
- Canine teeth- The teeth are also known by the term - cuspids that are positioned in the corners of your mouth. The main function of these sharply pointed cone-shaped teeth is of clutching and tearing food. They are meant for ripping hard food substances such as meat, sugar cane, chocolate etc. Canines have very long roots and they flank the incisors from both the sides.
- Premolars- Also known as bicuspids are positioned just behind the Canine teeth in the back of the mouth. Premolars are large and have a flat-surfaced teeth found which are meant for crushing the food. Valleys and peaks on the flat apical surface of both premolars and molars are used for chewing and crushing food into minute particles.
- Molars- These are the last teeth located towards the extreme back of the mouth. Molars are much larger than the Premolars and have a flatter, larger grinding surface because their task is to chew and grind the food into tinier pieces.
A tooth is generally made up of 2 parts: the crown and the root.
The crown part of the teeth is what you see when you open your mouth or smile. It is that part of the tooth that sits above your gum line.
The root of the tooth is below the gum line and makes up about 2/3rds of the tooth’s total length.
Each tooth is an organ containing 4 layers.
Four different tissues that make up each tooth are:-
- Enamel- It is the outer layer of the crown which is durable and has a white covering. It forms an enormously hard, nonporous cap over the dentin. The main function of Enamel is to protect the tooth from the wear and tear of grinding. The amazing dental fact about enamel on your teeth is that it is the hardest substance in your body and is composed of almost massively of hydroxylapatite.
- Dentin- Surrounding the pulp is the dentin that gives supports to the enamel on your teeth. It is a hard, yellow bone-like mineralized layer of tissue which is somewhat softer than enamel and obtains a number of the nerve fibers that sends you the warning signals as and when something is going wrong inside your tooth. Dentin has a much harder surface than the pulp because of the existence of collagen fibers and hydroxylapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that is one of the hardest substances found in nature. The design of the dentin layer is so porous that it allows the nutrients and substances formed in the pulp to spread through the tooth easily.
- Pulp- It is the centre most part of the tooth. It is a vascular area of soft connective tissues in the middle of the tooth that comprises of blood, nerves lymph vessels. Little nerve fibers and blood vessels introduce into the pulp by tiny holes at the tip of the roots to reinforce the strong outer structures. The pulp is how the tooth obtains care and nourishment. It conveys signals to the brain. Stem cells called as odontoblasts structures the dentin of the tooth at the edge of the pulp.
- Cementum- It is what conceals most of the root of the tooth. It enables to link the tooth to your jaw bones. A spongy layer known as the Periodontal Ligament rests between the cementum and the jawbone and supports to attach the two.
Common Dental Problems and their treatments
- Tooth decay and cavity- most common oral problems
Cavities and tooth decay are significant health concerns associated to the teeth. The enamel that coats the crown in every tooth can split down by acids being produced by the bacteria that sit in the mouth and directs in digestion of tiny bits of food. This mechanism of enamel erosion by acids is known as decay. To protect teeth from decay, proper oral hygiene, consisting of twice per day brushing and flossing, is crucial. Decay can further result in cavities, also called as dental caries, where tiny holes exist in the enamel and reveal the dentin.
Cavity is another one caused by the bacterial attack in the mouth and if being left untreated and given more time to be left alone, it can lead to extreme damage. The bacteria that lie in the gums feast on the sugar and starch residue left on and between the teeth. After the bacteria eat up these carbohydrates, they discharge an acid waste product. This acid diffuses the tooth enamel. The bacteria then make a move in and rest in the room left behind in the teeth, and thus become more troublesome to catch through brushing and flossing.
Cavities need dental interference to prevent their further development, generally leading to the removal of the impacted tissue and the cavity filling with a hard substance to restore the functioning and health of the tooth.
Proper dental hygiene is the best bet and caregivers should be specifically mindful, as cavities most often takes place in kids. Once a cavity has occurred, a dentist can use filling or crown — if required — a root canal to cure the problem.
- Bad breath- the most obvious one
Also known as halitosis, the primary source of bad breath is the tongue. Why tongue is regarded as the main source of bad breath is because of the embedded layers of bacteria that mass upon it, thus leading to bad-smelling Volatile Sulfur synthesis. The other possible causes of bad-breath may include dry mouth (which happens naturally while sleep, but can also be occurred by a glandular problem), as well as some foods, such as onions, garlic or red chili.
Apart from these, the another source — one that is often ignored — is a post nasal drop, which causes foul smell because bacteria are allured towards the resulting phlegm and mucus. To get rid of the bad breath, stress upon the significance of a regular tongue rubbing enough and antihistamines (after consulting your dentist, of course) in case a post-nasal drip is your problem.
The fight Against Bad Breath
Once the commonly conducted dental problems have been ruled out, the given steps can help youngsters get over with bad breath for good:
- Do not consume tobacco or alcoholic products in excess
- Eat nutritious and well-balanced diet
- Floss at least once daily
- Brush twice daily
- Tongue scraping twice daily
- See your dentist for routine dental check ups
Young children who have braces should be extra careful in practicing good oral hygiene because food material can get easily imprisoned in the braces.
Mouth sores- a prevalent ailmentIt is although a less common ailment, but mouth sores is spreading extensively. There are generally 2 types of mouth sores:
- Canker sores
The second kind of sore, herpes, is virus-influence and transferrable (by direct contact, like handshaking, hugging, or sharing things like drinking glasses or eating meal in a same platter). An outbreak usually involves skin lesions around the lips and mouth and small blisters. This condition can be treated with antiviral pills and creams while there was traditionally no cure.
Gum disease- a gulping oral problem amongst young adultsGum disease is principally caused by three factors:
- Poor oral hygiene
- Genetic susceptibility
Periodontitis is a more serious type of gum disease and, as per the Mayo Clinic, can take you at higher risk for stroke or heart attack. How? Bacteria can be breathed in or enter the blood by way of gums, ultimately adversely affecting the heart and lungs
Symptoms of gum disease include elements such as bleeding or swollen gums, constant bad breath, and sensitive or loose teeth. The treatment often includes tartar scraping or a deep cleaning from below the gum line, medicated mouthwashes or gels, prescription antibiotics, and surgery — if needed. Meticulous at-home care is crucial thereafter.
Tooth sensitivity- a real annoying oral issueSensitivity in teeth can be a consistently disturbing dental problem and there can be many causes of it. Main cause among them is exposed root surfaces.
If the gums withdraws even a little bit — 1 or 2 millimeters — the root of the tooth can get permanently exposed. The root surface is highly porous and can enable air and fluids to indirectly trigger the nerve in the mid part of the tooth.
Other potential causes include excessive exposure to cold or heat, cracked teeth or sensitivity to acidity. The conclusion — if your teeth are giving you bad pain, you should visit your dentist to carry out what actually is going on.
Teeth grinding- a probable disaster for your oral healthAlso known as Bruxism, it is most common in adults and is very damaging to the teeth — making them to get blunt and short, and at times leading to jaw problems. Stress and Misaligned teeth are the most common causes of teeth grinding.
An Orthodontic or restorative dentistry procedure can rectify alignment, and there is a manner for dentists to counterfeit a custom a plastic shield for people to wear when they sleep to guard their teeth from the disastrous forces our jaws can generate.
People can also practice activities like physical therapy, rejuvenation, stress buster exercises and daily relaxation techniques to decline stress level overall and to instruct the muscles of the jaw and face to stay relaxed.
Painful, impacted wisdom teethEver thought why some people are compelled to get their wisdom teeth removed, while others do not? If you have sufficient room in your jaw to accommodate them, they will come in fittingly and you can keep them for always. But the problem for some people is that there is not enough space, which suggests they will only come in, or “erupt” only partly. This could be troublesome because it can result in infection. Bacteria are capable to enter the soft tissue surrounding the partly-erupted tooth and settle down deep in the gums where the tooth is stuck. Most people will consequentially give rise to an infection in the jaw bone surrounding the wisdom tooth, or in some cases a cyst will develop around the impacted wisdom tooth.
Painful, impacted wisdom teeth are generally removed by surgery. However, the Mayo Clinic states that some dentists will choose to remove impacted wisdom teeth that are not certainly causing pain, as a means of preventing infection.
Tooth erosionThis is not a very popular oral problem, but it does occur. Specifically in people with bulimia, in which situation the gut acids cause tooth enamel to diffuse. If this continues for a longer period of time the teeth could entirely dissolve all the way to the gum line.
Yellow teethThis oral issue is generally cosmetic related and is caused by the beverages or food we consume. However, tobacco, coffee and red wine are supposed to be the major culprits of causing yellow teeth. In some cases, there are few teeth that just come in with a naturally yellowish undertone to them.
The problem is not of huge concern and there are plenty of over-the-counter options and prescriptions, from drugstore whitening strips to laser whitening to particularly compounded toothpastes, all of which you can consult your dentist about.
Toothaches- a prolonged painful problemIt is like the catch-all for dental health issues, and can be stimulated by just about everything including — cavities, gum disease, impacted wisdom teeth, sensitivity, athletic accident...etc etc...
The best shot is attempting proper oral hygiene and visiting your dentist as early as you suspect a problem to ignore letting it go too long. Avoiding an oral problem will only exacerbate it, resulting in decomposition and, most likely, and surgery. If you are passionate about sports or anything else that may result in face or head injury, mouth guards are your confidante. If you feel they look “weird” ask yourself if you would d look weirder wearing a mouth guard or with missing teeth?
Cure for oral problems
- Brushing Twice daily helps to Keep the Cavities and gum diseases Away
- Regular Dental Check Ups Include Oral Cancer Screenings and dental X-rays which makes the severe oral disease pertaining to the mouth, lips or throat highly curable if detected and treated in the early stages.
- Dental Cleanings are extremely important for maintaining good oral health. Routine check-ups can prevent root canals, oral cancer, cavities, periodontal disease and other dental conditions.
- Proper Nutrition is Important
- Change Your Toothbrush